Scientific Hypotheses – Michigan Paranormal Encounters http://michiganparanormalencounters.com/ Sun, 09 Jan 2022 18:06:51 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/icon-2.png Scientific Hypotheses – Michigan Paranormal Encounters http://michiganparanormalencounters.com/ 32 32 Pictures show mysterious flashes before Qinghai earthquake https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/pictures-show-mysterious-flashes-before-qinghai-earthquake/ Sun, 09 Jan 2022 14:20:03 +0000 https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/pictures-show-mysterious-flashes-before-qinghai-earthquake/ As President Biden has ordered further examination of the origins of Covid-19 and more countries call for action for next phase study, Chinese authorities are demanding that the United States investigate fully on the source of the outbreak within the United States’ own borders and biological laboratories. FFifteen months after the WHO declared the novel […]]]>

As President Biden has ordered further examination of the origins of Covid-19 and more countries call for action for next phase study, Chinese authorities are demanding that the United States investigate fully on the source of the outbreak within the United States’ own borders and biological laboratories.

FFifteen months after the WHO declared the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreak a global pandemic, the origin of the virus is still unclear. After the field visit to Wuhan by the WHO international research team earlier in 2021, all hypotheses about the origin of the virus remain on the table.

As efforts to vaccinate more people continue and the outlook for Covid-19 containment is more positive, the question of where the virus that causes Covid-19 is coming from is once again drawing attention. The question of the “origin investigation problem” (“溯源 问题”) is also prompting discussions on Chinese social networks.

American side: “In search of a definitive conclusion”

On May 26, the White House released President Joe Biden’s statement calling for further investigation into the origins of Covid-19.

The statement said there is still no definitive conclusion on the origins of the virus, with two scenarios being the most likely: human contact with an infected animal or a laboratory accident. Biden writes that he has asked the intelligence community to “redouble their efforts to collect and analyze information that may bring us closer to a definitive conclusion,” requesting a follow-up within 90 days, with particular emphasis on China .

Speculation that the coronavirus might have emerged from a Wuhan lab was first raised in early 2020, before being refuted and dismissed as a “conspiracy theory” by many scientists.

A statement in The Lancet published in February 2020 condemned any rumors about the origins of the virus, saying scientific research “overwhelmingly” concludes that the new coronavirus is native to wildlife. The WHO research team investigating the origins of Covid-19 also called it “extremely unlikely” that the virus had leaked from a laboratory in China.

American Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, was among the scientists who originally refuted the “lab leak” theory. But in May 2021, Fauci said he was “no longer convinced” that the Covid-19 pandemic was of natural origin.

In the US media, reports of the “lab leak theory” have also seen shifting narratives from a “conspiracy theory” to a seemingly credible theory. Last month a the Wall Street newspaper published an opinion piece titled “Science Suggests Wuhan Laboratory Leak,” which claims the pathogen of the novel coronavirus has a genetic fingerprint that has never been seen in a natural coronavirus.

the the Wall Street newspaper also reported on a study by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, which concluded that the hypothesis of a virus leak from a Chinese laboratory in Wuhan is plausible and merits further investigation. The report of the Wall Street newspaper included an alleged claim by the US State Department that the US government has reason to believe that several researchers at the Wuhan Institute of Virology fell ill in the fall of 2019, “with symptoms consistent with Covid-19 or seasonal flu “.

On the Chinese side: “It’s all about rejection of the fault”

Chinese officials have repeatedly denied a possible leak from a Chinese laboratory and stressed their cooperation with international efforts to find the origins of the pandemic.

On May 27 of this year, a day after Biden’s statement was released, Foreign Ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian (赵立坚) responded to China’s re-investigation into the origins of the novel coronavirus.

Zhao argued that the United States was not really interested in the scientific origin of the virus, but that its determination to re-investigate China despite previous scientific findings is a matter of “political manipulation” and “rejection of the virus. blame ”. He further said the United States – with more than 33 million confirmed cases of Covid-19 and 600,000 deaths from Covid-19 – should examine its own behavior, instead of “trying to make China the scapegoat “.

Although China was the first country to report Covid-19 infections, the official position has been that this does not necessarily mean that the new ‘patient zero’ coronavirus was also in China.

Prior to the Wuhan Laboratory Leak Theory, China had questioned the US military base Fort Detrick in Fredrick, Maryland, about the leak of Covid-19 as a biochemical warfare agent. In May last year, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Hua Chunying called for an international examination of Fort Detrick and other biological laboratories.

À la lumière des récents développements, le porte-parole du ministère chinois des Affaires étrangères, Wang Wenbin (汪文斌), a également, à nouveau, suggéré que les États-Unis invitent une équipe internationale de scientifiques à mener une enquête indépendante sur Fort Detrick sur son lien potentiel avec l’origine de Covid-19.

Le porte-parole du ministère chinois des Affaires étrangères, Zhao Lijian, lors de la conférence de presse.

Cette position a de nouveau été réitérée par Zhao Lijian lors d’une conférence de presse le 17 juin, où le porte-parole du MFA a demandé aux États-Unis d’expliquer pourquoi, étant le pays le plus médicalement au monde, leur nombre de morts du COVID19 était si élevé et pourquoi personne ne prendrait la responsabilité de cela. et donner plus de transparence sur Fort Detrick.

Le 22 juin, le ministère chinois des Affaires étrangères a renversé la vapeur et exigé une enquête approfondie (1) sur la source de l’épidémie aux États-Unis, une (2) enquête approfondie sur le pourquoi et le qui de la réponse inadéquate américaine dans la lutte contre l’épidémie, puis également (3) une enquête sur les problèmes de sécurité dans d’autres laboratoires biologiques de Fort Detrick (#赵立坚请美国赶紧回答3个问题#).

Discussions et hashtags Weibo

Sur les réseaux sociaux chinois, diverses discussions et hashtags ont surgi en réponse aux récents développements concernant la recherche sur les origines du COVID19. La plupart des commentateurs s’accordent sur une chose, à savoir que la prochaine étape des enquêtes sur l’origine de Covid-19 concerne apparemment davantage la politique que le virus lui-même.

Un hashtag intitulé « Biden a ordonné au renseignement américain d’enquêter sur les origines de Covid-19 » (#拜登令美情报部门调查新冠病毒起源) est apparu le même jour que la déclaration de la Maison Blanche a été publiée et a immédiatement attiré plus de 35 millions de vues. Un autre hashtag connexe sur Weibo est « Les spécialistes américains ont changé de ton concernant l’origine de COVID19 » (#美国专家在新冠病毒的来源上改口了#).

Sur Weibo, la réaction la plus courante à l’enquête de Biden et à la couverture médiatique américaine des origines du virus est une suspicion envers leurs véritables intentions, allant des émotions intenses à l’humour sarcastique. Les utilisateurs de Weibo suggèrent que l’appel à l’action de Biden est une décision politiquement chargée de blâmer davantage la Chine pour la pandémie au milieu des tensions croissantes sino-américaines. La plupart des internautes qui commentent sous ce hashtag estiment que les États-Unis exagèrent délibérément le problème pour discréditer la Chine, transformant le problème des origines du COVID19 en un problème géopolitique plutôt que scientifique.

Un commentaire populaire (@乐隐灯清) disait : « Si je dis que vous l’avez, alors vous l’avez – [this is] the second season of ‘Laundry Detergent’! “This sarcastic comment refers to the famous UN meeting where US Secretary of State Colin Powell presented a vial containing white powder, supposedly proving Saddam Hussein was storing anthrax, in order to justify the US invasion of Iraq.Putin retaliated by calling this vial of powder “laundry detergent”.

There are also netizens worried about the 90-day limit of the investigation announced by Biden, wondering if such a short period would be sufficient for a thorough and fair study. One user, whose profile picture is the Chinese national flag, wrote: “90 days? If you investigated Fort Detrick in the morning, you would already have the conclusion before lunchtime! “

One user questioned the US president’s decision to trace the origin of Covid-19 to China rather than his own country: “Are they giving 90 days to investigate the origin or 90 days to fabricate a rumor?

Another hashtag is “Where did the novel coronavirus come from?” “(# 新 冠 肺炎 病毒 起源 于 哪里 #). On this hashtag page, most of the discussion revolves around whether COVID19 was already found in various countries outside of China during or just before the first days of the Wuhan outbreak. Various studies suggest that the coronavirus may have circulated in the United States and France a month before its official confirmation.

“The fact that Chinese scientists were the first to discover the genetic sequence of the novel coronavirus does not mean that Wuhan is the source of Covid-19, and it certainly cannot be used as a pretext to conclude that the virus was made. by Chinese scientists. Wrote a Weibo blogger (@ 侠骨 一点 情).

There are those who believe it is likely that the virus came from the United States, claiming that the US investigation into China is a matter of “zéi hǎn zhuō zéi”(贼喊捉贼), an idiom which literally means“ a thief shouting “Stop Thief!

“Investigate thoroughly! Except Here ‘(‘ 彻查! 除了 这儿 ‘) by 半桶 老 阿 汤 / Half Can of Old Soup

In response to the investigation, the graphic designer @ 半桶 老 阿 汤 / ‘Half Can of Old Soup’ also posted a cartoon, showing President Biden blocking the entrance to Fort Detrick, with a search team from the WHO standing in front of the entrance.

Many netizens are backing the official Chinese reaction that it is time for America to investigate the epidemic within its own borders. “First, discrediting and supervising China regarding the origin of the virus has become a ‘national policy’ of the US government to get rid of their [own] difficult situations, “Chinese economist Tao Yongyi (@ 陶永 谊) wrote on Weibo:” Now the best defense is a good offense. ”

Through Susanna Sun & Manya Koetse

Have you spotted an error or want to add something? Please let us know in the comments below or drop us a line.

© 2021 Whatsonweibo. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce our content without permission – you can contact us at info@whatsonweibo.com.



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Taking high-dose vitamin D supplements for five years did not affect the incidence of cardiovascular disease or cancer – ScienceDaily https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/taking-high-dose-vitamin-d-supplements-for-five-years-did-not-affect-the-incidence-of-cardiovascular-disease-or-cancer-sciencedaily/ Thu, 06 Jan 2022 09:16:23 +0000 https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/taking-high-dose-vitamin-d-supplements-for-five-years-did-not-affect-the-incidence-of-cardiovascular-disease-or-cancer-sciencedaily/ A trial from the University of Eastern Finland found that taking a much higher dose of vitamin D than recommended for five years did not affect overall mortality or the incidence of cardiovascular disease or cancer in men. and older women. In population studies, low levels of vitamin D in the body have been linked […]]]>

A trial from the University of Eastern Finland found that taking a much higher dose of vitamin D than recommended for five years did not affect overall mortality or the incidence of cardiovascular disease or cancer in men. and older women.

In population studies, low levels of vitamin D in the body have been linked to an increased risk of many chronic diseases as well as premature death. However, it cannot be directly inferred from these observational studies whether the use of vitamin D supplementation can reduce the risk of illness or death. The early 2010s saw the start of large-scale vitamin D trials in several countries examining the effects of higher than recommended doses of vitamin D on the risk of developing disease. One of these was the Finnish Vitamin D Trial (FIND) conducted at the University of Eastern Finland in 2012-2018.

In the FIND trial, 2,495 participants (men 60 years or older and women 65 years or older) were randomized for five years to either the placebo group or the 40 or 80 microgram groups (1600 or 3200 IU) vitamin D3 per day. All participants were free from cardiovascular disease and cancer at the start of the trial and were allowed to use their own vitamin D supplement up to 20 micrograms (800 IU) per day (the recommended intake for this age group). when the test was started). At the start and during the trial, search forms were used to collect comprehensive information from the subjects on lifestyle, nutrition, risk factors, and disease incidence. Information on the incidence of diseases and deaths was also obtained from national health registers. About a fifth of the randomly selected subjects underwent more detailed examinations and provided blood samples.

The majority were not vitamin D deficient at the start of the trial

During the five years of the trial, 119 participants developed cardiovascular disease, 129 subjects were diagnosed with cancer, and 19 died. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of events between the groups. Doses of vitamin D were found to be safe as no difference in side effects was observed between the groups. In the sub-sample examined in more detail, the mean blood concentration of vitamin D (calcidiol) was 75 nmol / L (30 ng / mL) at baseline. After one year, the mean concentration of calcidiol was 100 nmol / L (40 ng / mL) in the group taking 40 micrograms of vitamin D per day and 120 nmol / L (48 ng / mL) in the group taking 80 micrograms. of vitamin D per day. There was no significant change in calcidiol concentrations in the placebo group. Only 9% of subjects had low levels of vitamin D at baseline, that is, they had a blood calcidiol concentration below 50 nmol / L (20 ng / mL).

The results of the FIND trial are very much in line with other similar studies which have shown that taking doses of vitamin D higher than recommended for many years does not have a significant effect on the risk of develop cardiovascular disease or cancer if the body’s vitamin D status is already sufficient. In Finland, the average vitamin D intake of the population has increased since the early 2000s due, among other things, to vitamin D supplementation from vegetable oil spreads and liquid dairy products as well as increased use of vitamin D supplements. Securing your vitamin D intake with vitamin D supplements is always recommended, especially during the winter, if the diet is poor in sources of vitamin D, such as fish or foods fortified with vitamin D In Finland, vitamin D supplementation of 10 micrograms per day (400 IU) is recommended for the adult population; the recommendation is 20 micrograms per day (800 IU) for people 75 years of age and older. However, the study does not support the use of high doses of vitamin D for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer.

In addition to these main results, the FIND trial will provide comprehensive reports on the effects of vitamin D supplementation on, among others, type 2 diabetes, fractures and falls, mood swings, infections, pain and other results.

Source of the story:

Material provided by University of Eastern Finland. Note: Content can be changed for style and length.


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Switzerland votes again on animal testing ban https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/switzerland-votes-again-on-animal-testing-ban/ Tue, 04 Jan 2022 08:00:00 +0000 https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/switzerland-votes-again-on-animal-testing-ban/ Around 350,000 mice are tested each year in Swiss laboratories. © Keystone / Gaetan Bally Animal welfare activists want a total ban on experiments on living things in Switzerland. Their proposal, which will be put to a national vote on February 13, was deemed too extreme by parliament, which feared it would hamper medical and […]]]>

Around 350,000 mice are tested each year in Swiss laboratories. © Keystone / Gaetan Bally

Animal welfare activists want a total ban on experiments on living things in Switzerland. Their proposal, which will be put to a national vote on February 13, was deemed too extreme by parliament, which feared it would hamper medical and scientific research in Switzerland.

This content was published on January 4, 2022 – 09:00

Marie Vuilleumier

What it is about?

For the fourth time in the country’s history, Swiss voters are called upon to approve a ban on animal testing. They have already rejected three popular initiatives on the subject: in 1985 (70% against), 1992 (56% against) and 1993 (72% against). The latest attempt is to ban all testing on animals and humans, and to stop the importation of any new product developed using such testing.

Are animal experiments widespread in Switzerland?

About 600,000 animals have been used for experiments each year over the past decade, but that number is steadily declining according to statisticsExternal link of the Federal Office for Food and Veterinary Safety. In 2020, a total of 550,107 creatures were tested in Swiss laboratories, the vast majority of which were mice (346,000), birds (66,000) and rats (52,000).

International comparisons are difficult to make, as each country has its own way of counting animals used in research. According to official figures, French and German laboratories tested 1.8 million and 2.9 million animals respectively in 2019.

In Switzerland, most animal experiments are carried out by companies and universities. In 2020, over 60% of these procedures were performed in basic biology research, such as testing scientific hypotheses or harvesting cells and organs.

What is the current legislation on this subject?

Federal legislation on the protection of animalsExternal link, which became law in 2008, is one of the strictest and most comprehensive in the world. Authorization is required for any laboratory experiment, and for any confinement of animals. Researchers must prove that the benefits to society outweigh the suffering inflicted.

To determine if the test is really necessary, “degrees of severity” are predefined: from degree 0 which does not involve any stress on the animals (like observational studies) to degree 3 which imposes severe constraints (such as deliberate transplantation of malignant tumors).

In addition, experimentation is only allowed if there is no alternative procedure to answer the research question. The use of animals in research is governed by the 3R principle: replace (find another way to experiment), reduce (limit the number of animals used) and refine (minimize animal suffering).

The text of the initiative proposes to put an end to all experiments on living beings on Swiss soil. This means that the use of animals for training purposes, as well as for basic scientific research, would no longer be allowed.

This initiative also wants to ban experimentation on humans, but it does not specify whether it applies only to medicine and biology or to psychology, sociology and sports sciences.

The proposal also wants a ban on imports of new products or components developed using animal experiments. It calls for research without animal testing to receive at least as much public funding as research involving animal testing.

Who supports the initiative?

The initiative was started by a group of citizens from Eastern Switzerland which includes a naturopath, a doctor and an organic farmer. It is supported by around 80 organizations and companies active in the cause of animal welfare, environmental protection and alternative medicine.

The initiative committee believes that the mistreatment of animals and patients unable to give informed consent is “intolerable”. In his arguments, he states that “many meta-studies show that neither animals nor humans can provide reliable evidence for another species.” The committee stresses that it does not aim to ban human research altogether, but wants to advance science by combining patient-centered approaches rather than inflicting suffering.

The committee regrets that the number of animal experiments has remained the same over the past 25 years, even though the 3R principle has existed for at least half a century. They believe their proposal will encourage innovation and “make giant strides in research, medicine, medical tourism in Switzerland and human maturity”.

Who is opposed to the initiative?

The government recommends that citizens vote “No”. The initiative also did not receive the support of a single MP. Parliament made no counter-proposal because the existing legislation was considered adequate. All political parties think the proposal is too extreme, even though Liberal Greens, Greens and Social Democrats would like to spend more money on research that develops or uses alternatives to animal testing.

The umbrella organization of the universities, swissuniversities, also spoke out against the proposal, as did the National Research Council of the Swiss National Science Foundation. Even the Swiss Society for the Protection of Animals finds the proposal too radical and would content itself with more promotion of alternative methods.

Opponents of the initiative fear that a range of drugs will no longer be produced or imported into Switzerland. “This country would be cut off from global medical progress, which would have serious consequences for the health of humans and animals,” they argue. Opponents also stress that research and development of drugs is very important for Switzerland. They argue that if the country were to forgo all animal testing it would become less attractive and a lot of research programs and companies would likely move elsewhere.


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How To Find The COVID-19 Facts In A Disinformation Pandemic Sciences | In-depth science and technology report | DW https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/how-to-find-the-covid-19-facts-in-a-disinformation-pandemic-sciences-in-depth-science-and-technology-report-dw/ Sun, 02 Jan 2022 07:14:29 +0000 https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/how-to-find-the-covid-19-facts-in-a-disinformation-pandemic-sciences-in-depth-science-and-technology-report-dw/ Have you ever been annoyed by how researchers seem to keep shifting directions during the pandemic? Or got upset that “alternative experts” didn’t get the attention they deserve? After all, many of them are also doctors and teachers of some form. Who can be considered a credible expert? And who can’t? Why don’t scientists stick […]]]>

Have you ever been annoyed by how researchers seem to keep shifting directions during the pandemic? Or got upset that “alternative experts” didn’t get the attention they deserve? After all, many of them are also doctors and teachers of some form.

Who can be considered a credible expert? And who can’t? Why don’t scientists stick to what they said a few days ago? In other words: how does science work?

First of all, the bad news: science will never satisfy the desire for truth and definitive knowledge. He doesn’t even pretend to do it.

“Science is a process in which science always questions itself, which always leads it to correct itself,” said Ulrich Dirnagl, who researches stroke at Charité Hospital , where he and his colleagues are in charge of quality management for the biomedical sector. research at the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) – doing research on research, so to speak.

“Lots of miscarriages”

Although scientific work often leads to more in-depth studies and revisions, not all hypotheses or conclusions carry the same weight.

One of the many stories told at this point in the pandemic goes like this: “A friend of mine is a midwife and sees a lot of miscarriages after women have been vaccinated.” These are the kinds of stories that are likely to cause hiccups in horror at first – after all, a woman is a midwife and should know what she is talking about.

Whether or not it emanates from a midwife, such an anecdote should at most encourage further exploration of the question. “An anecdote can certainly generate a hypothesis,” Dirnagl said. “But this hypothesis must then be tested in controlled studies if a causal relationship is to be established.”

No link between vaccines and miscarriages has been found – and more than 8.7 billion doses of the vaccine have been administered worldwide.

Skepticism and self-criticism

It is therefore very possible that the observation of the midwife stems from a deeply human mechanism: confirmation bias. This cognitive error causes us to give more credibility to information that matches our existing beliefs.

And no one is immune to confirmation bias. “The only thing that helps there is being your own devil’s advocate,” said Roland Imhoff, a social psychologist who researches the conspiracy mentality. It means deliberately taking the opposite point of view to the one you have, he said.

Because scientists are far more aware that they are prone to error than most conspiracy theorists, they will most likely continue to address the issue of miscarriage. “Organized skepticism is a scientific norm,” Dirnagl said. “Because we know we can make mistakes with our results and conclusions, we scientists are fundamentally skeptical – about ourselves, too. “

Therefore, scientific studies or research articles intended for publication in trade journals should first be subjected to careful scrutiny by other specialists in the respective field. This is done through peer review. Even research results uploaded to preprint platforms are critically examined by the scientific community.

Several studies were withdrawn during the pandemic, like this one on hydroxychloroquine

Although neither of these systems is perfect, they increase the likelihood that method or calculation errors will be discovered.

“Organized skepticism also means that good studies mention their own limitations early on,” Dirnagl said. For example, the authors might write that the cohort, or study group, was relatively small, that no suitable control group was possible, or that the researchers were unable to consider certain aspects for. for whatever reason.

Dirnagl said scientific transparency also means publishing studies in a way that allows other researchers to replicate the results. A swallow doesn’t make a summer, after all.

Refuse – do not prove

Science does not intend to establish the truth. “It’s much easier to reveal an assumption as wrong,” Dirnagl said. “The assumption that swans are white is valid until the first black swans are sighted.”

If the purpose of science was to test a hypothesis – to prove that a hypothesis is true – then, to stay with our swans, you would have to see all the swans in the world. And it can never be ruled out that those looking for birds might miss one, even if they were as thorough as possible.

Very few of us are researchers ourselves. Our possibilities to reproduce the experiments and calculations presented in a study are limited. And, even if we were all virologists, we would have few ideas about atmospheric physics. At the end of the day, it’s a matter of trust.

In a study, Imhoff and his colleagues Pia Lamberty and Olivier Klein looked at people’s trust in experts. They found that people less drawn to conspiracy theories were more likely to trust hypotheses when scientists supported them. The content of the hypotheses played a secondary role.

“For a long time this was viewed as irrational,” Imhoff said. But, in fact, it makes a lot of sense. “As a society, we depend on building consensus and building trust in that consensus,” he said.

Virologist Christian Drosten is widely recognized by Germans because he was involved in the discovery of SARS-CoV-1 – the virus that caused the 2002-2003 SARS epidemic – in 2003, and has since carried out research on coronaviruses. He is also the source of several publications on SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Online research databases, including pubMed, can help people find out if the alarming theories presented in the YouTube video their grandmother sent them are being addressed in specialist research on the topic.

“No one is declared a pope or made an aristocrat like that,” Imhoff said, referring to the regular accusations by anti-vaccines and pandemic deniers that only certain voices are heard in particular areas of research. Even Drosten’s publications must withstand the scrutiny of his fellow scientists. And he is only considered an expert because they are holding up.

Rummaging through databases can be more work than most of us would like. However, there are a few things that non-scientists should be raising our alarm bells for.

“Anyone who announces that something is 100% true is exhibiting questionable scientific behavior,” Dirnagl said. “And anyone who comes up with an extreme hypothesis, such as saying that the spike protein is toxic, should also be subjected to extreme standards of proof.”

And a YouTube video alone does not meet standards.

This article has been translated from German.


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They study autism using neural networks that mimic how the brain works https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/they-study-autism-using-neural-networks-that-mimic-how-the-brain-works/ Fri, 31 Dec 2021 17:36:03 +0000 https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/they-study-autism-using-neural-networks-that-mimic-how-the-brain-works/ stock market struggle By hiring a A computer model that simulates the functioning of the cerebral cortex Based on visual stimuli, Argentinian researchers identified a The relationship between the physiological and cognitive processes that will take place there Autism spectrum disorders (Tea). “A better understanding of The relationship between brain physiology and cognition or behavior […]]]>

stock market struggle

By hiring a A computer model that simulates the functioning of the cerebral cortex Based on visual stimuli, Argentinian researchers identified a The relationship between the physiological and cognitive processes that will take place there Autism spectrum disorders (Tea).

“A better understanding of The relationship between brain physiology and cognition or behavior is central to the design of new treatmentsAlthough there is still a long way to go to reach this state. Rodrigo Echevsti, doctor of natural sciences in Germany and researcher at CONICET and at the Universidad Nacional del Littoral (UNL) at the Institute for Research on Signals, Systems and Computational Intelligence or “Sense (1)”, in Santa Fe .

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They also took part in the work Diego mellon s Enzo Ferrante, as well as researchers from CONICET and UNL (i), and Ines Samengou, also of CONICET of the Balseiro Institute and of the Department of Medical Physics of the Atomic Center of Bariloche.

A few years ago, Elizabeth Pellicano from Macquarie University in Australia and David Burr from the University of Florence in Italy suggested it. Weigh or “balance” sensory information from the outside world with prior information and the way in which the possibilities are represented Whether in the outside world or according to their expectations, it happens less favorably in people with autism. For example, sensory perception is increased and expectations are lowered.

As described in the scientific journal Retinal Neuroscience, Eshivsti and his colleagues tried to understand why people with autism have such a difference in weight. “To answer this question, we analyze the observations on the physiology of autism,” says the Santa Fe researcher, who holds a doctorate from the Computational and Biological Intelligence Laboratory (CBL) at the University of Cambridge, UK. -United.

Arithmetic model

In the new study, a computer model developed by Echeveste with researchers from the University of Cambridge while they lived there was used as a test bed.

“This model A neural network trained using artificial intelligence techniques to process visual stimuliThis mimics the behavior of our primary visual cortex. When you measure the behavior of these artificial neurons while the network is “looking at something,” we see dynamics in the responses of the neurons that are very similar to those in our cerebral cortex. “

the Optimal functioning of our brain requires a very delicate balance between excitatory neurons Which, when activated, helps ignite other neurons, as well Other inhibitors which, when turned on, tends to turn others off.

“More specifically, we asked ourselves whether the differences in perception (between autistic and non-autistic people) in terms of the weight of information could be explained by differences in inhibition mechanisms, and for this, we used a computer model that simulated neurophysiological performance. .

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the Weakened inhibition in the artificial neural network, earlier expectations began to weigh less and perceive stimuli more. “So at least in our model, these two visions of autism would be two sides of the same coin,” said the researcher.

In recent years, there has been an explosion in the neurosciences of the use of advanced technologies in the field of artificial intelligence to Develop computer models that allow a better understanding of the functioning of the brain. Most of the models represent the normal functioning of the brain. Through this work, we show that this approach is also very useful for understanding sensory processing, for example, in people with autism, ”noted Eschvist.

He added: “In a back and forth with experimental neuroscience, these increasingly detailed and complex models allow testing of hypotheses and generating predictions about the direction of future work, helping to focus experimental efforts. , which are often difficult or expensive to implement. “


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To take off! James Webb Telescope heads into space • Earth.com https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/to-take-off-james-webb-telescope-heads-into-space-earth-com/ Thu, 30 Dec 2021 04:24:49 +0000 https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/to-take-off-james-webb-telescope-heads-into-space-earth-com/ NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope has taken off! It’s an exciting day for the space enthusiasts among us. And while you may not be as familiar with space exploration and discovery, the Webb Telescope has exciting potential that will impact all of us here on planet Earth. The media have described the telescope’s journey as […]]]>

NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope has taken off! It’s an exciting day for the space enthusiasts among us. And while you may not be as familiar with space exploration and discovery, the Webb Telescope has exciting potential that will impact all of us here on planet Earth. The media have described the telescope’s journey as a quest “on the edge of time itself” and scientists anxiously await new data on the birth of the universe as the telescope kicks into action.

Today we’re going to take a look at the details of the James Webb Telescope, what scientists predict this technology can accomplish, and what it could mean for us here on the Earth’s surface as we go through tough times on scale. global and local.

For as vast and vast as our native galaxy is, our connections to each other and the questions that inspire these pursuits define our species and inform critical information and survival – on this planet and beyond.

The James Webb Telescope

The James Webb Telescope (JWST) was launched on Christmas morning, December 25, 2021. At the same time that many children around the world rushed to see what Christmas presents had landed from Santa Claus overnight, the JWST took off from Ariane 5. The launch pad is part of the European spaceport located in Kourou, French Guiana. The rocket ignited and sent the telescope out of our atmosphere and into space. “We expect to see the light of the first galaxies which formed a hundred of [million], 200 million years after the Big Bang, ”NASA Administrator Bill Nelson said in a recent briefing.

The big picture behind a powerful telescope

NASA developed the JWST in partnership with the Canadian Space Agency and the European Space Agency (ESA). The intention behind the JWST is for it to succeed and expand the Hubble Space Telescope, which has enchanted scientists and children for the past 30 years. The Hubble Telescope has succeeded in determining the age of our universe (13.8 billion years). He helped scientists discover two moons around Pluto. The Hubble images have helped calculations on how fast the universe is expanding. It illuminated that almost every galaxy we’ve discovered so far has a black hole, anchoring its center. The JWST is the next step in these significant leaps in our cosmic understanding.

Even though JWST is intended to replace Hubble, it’s actually only half the size of the old space telescope. However, Webb’s main mirror is over 6 times the size of Hubble’s. The mirror measures 21 feet in diameter. Made of gold-plated beryllium reflector, it has 18 hexagonal mirrors. Scientists designed the Webb Telescope in this way to provide improved infrared resolution of images and will also enable an exciting amount of new research in the fields of astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology.

Design elements

An essential design element of the telescope is its lens hood. The sun visor is important because the mirrors must be cold and out of the heat of the sun. It is designed to always block the mirrors of the sun, moon and earth and will passively radiate heat from the telescope into space. The shield is made of 5 layers. Each successive layer is cooler than the previous one. The vacuum created between each layer works as an insulation, which disrupts heat conduction better than a single large layer. Overall, the shield will protect the telescope so that sensitive scientific instruments are better able to detect infrared light from very distant and faint objects.

Instruments

The Integrated Scientific Instrument Module (ISIM) is the frame of the telescope. It integrates four scientific instruments as well as a guidance camera. The four instruments are: the NIRCam (Near InfraRed Camera) which is an infrared imager; NIRSpec (Near InfraRed Spectrograph) will also perform spectroscopy over the same wavelength range; MIRI (Mid-InfraRed Instrument) will measure the wavelength range of mid to long infrared from 5 to 27 m; and FGS / NIRISS (Fine Guidance Sensor and Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph) – which will stabilize the sighting light from the telescope’s observatory.

There is also a “spaceship bus” – a term that, if you grew up in the 1990s and early 2000s, may remind you of Mrs. Frizzle and her magic school bus, but actually refers to the main element of telescope support. which will provide computation, communication, electrical power, propulsion and structural parts to the telescope as a whole.

These scientific instruments and frameworks add up to form one incredible piece of space technology. This technology allows for ongoing investigations and explorations to be determined which will include very large-scale elements of our universe. But what exactly do we hope to find in the far reaches of space? Extraterrestrials?

What scientists hope to find

When Homo sapiens looks up to the sky, we tend to ask big questions. What we look for up there in the stars can be an ineffable dilemma – but it can also be a scientific hypothesis. Telescopes have already taught us a lot about our solar system. From Aztec star maps in the Netherlands in the 1600s, to Galileo and until today, these discoveries have shaped our species and planted seeds of cosmic curiosity.

With the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, there is a continuing legacy of hopes, dreams, assumptions, and explorations that become possible for us as a species. There are big questions to pursue – as they have been in every decade of our evolution.

Examples specific to this telescope launch include the formation of early galaxies and the potential identification of habitable exoplanets and their atmospheres. We may be able to see the first stars to light up the universe. The telescope will be able to observe black holes and quasars with unmatched sensitivity and detail, perhaps revealing the mysteries of their complex structures.

According to NASA Administrator Bill Nelson, JWST has the potential to “unlock the secrets of the universe.” It may sound like a science fiction novel to the uninitiated – but it’s real life, in the real world, floating in a real universe and fascinating principles of mystery and astronomy. The first images from the Webb telescope are expected to arrive in the summer of 2022.

Who is James Webb?

Obviously, the stakes are quite high as is the anticipation. While we wait for the telescope images to arrive, maybe we can take the time to ask ourselves: who is James Webb? And why did NASA and its global collaborators choose to give this incredible telescope its name?

Webb ran the fledgling space agency, NASA, from 1961 to 1968 and is most closely linked to the Apollo space program of that time. To many, he is a government figure whose work has balanced human curiosity and spaceflight with science. According to the NASA online site, Webb “has done more for science than perhaps any other government official and it is only fitting that the next-generation space telescope bears his name.” There has been a controversy over Webb’s legacy and his potential involvement in the ‘fear of lavender’ that has taken place in NASA history – an assault on LGBTQ workers for whom there is a continuing need for reconciliation. . NASA refused to change the name.

When NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe announced the name of JWST, he explained that “[James Webb] took our nation on its first voyages of exploration, turning our imaginations into reality.

Space science and travel in the time of the coronavirus

It is a defining moment in history. An end-time telescope, named after a man whose life’s work was dedicated to human curiosity and potential, launched on Christmas Day amid a poignant global pandemic. 2021 has been a year characterized by disinformation, horrific politics and the crumbling social structures we all depend on – and also, apparently, hope and optimism via a telescope. It’s a lot to take.

The questions surrounding how we use our resources and who decides are an emotional debate. We do not all agree and an acute crisis surrounds all but the lucky ones of our species. Billionaire business owners are launching into space as their workers contract a deadly virus by working in warehouses for wages that don’t cover even the most basic living expenses. Where does space travel and space science fit into all of this? Especially when a project like JWST comes at a high cost, of course. The cost of commissioning the telescope has so far amounted to $ 8.8 billion. Our dominant culture comes from the fact that our resources are not infinite. Our planet has limits that will require our adherence, one way or another.

In conclusion, a great start

The Webb Telescope is not an impulsive whim of spending and space colonization. This technology has been in development since the 1980s. This telescope and observatory has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the universe – and better inform our understanding of how our planet and our species fit into this cosmic web.

And boy, do we ever need a little perspective. As the omicron variant rages through our communities, we will all respond to these philosophical and tangible debates based on our lived experiences and value systems. Perhaps the James Webb Space Telescope, in addition to shedding light on some theories of astronomy and cosmology, could also apply to our everyday, mundane life. What does it mean to turn our imaginations into reality? What would our own planet be like if we could cultivate connecting relationships and shared curiosity?


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There is a rare hallucination that makes you see tiny people, and no one knows why https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/there-is-a-rare-hallucination-that-makes-you-see-tiny-people-and-no-one-knows-why/ Tue, 28 Dec 2021 01:31:17 +0000 https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/there-is-a-rare-hallucination-that-makes-you-see-tiny-people-and-no-one-knows-why/ In all its dazzling complexity, the human brain can indeed produce remarkable experiences. For some, it means hallucinations of tiny people, rushing in front of their eyes. Hallucinations of little humans can be entertaining or terrifying depending on who you ask, and accounts of these “microoptical” or “Lilliputian” visions are rather rare in the scientific […]]]>

In all its dazzling complexity, the human brain can indeed produce remarkable experiences. For some, it means hallucinations of tiny people, rushing in front of their eyes.

Hallucinations of little humans can be entertaining or terrifying depending on who you ask, and accounts of these “microoptical” or “Lilliputian” visions are rather rare in the scientific literature. In fact, few researchers have tried to figure out what is behind these strange experiences in the first place.

What are Lilliputian hallucinations?

In the early 1900s, French psychiatrist Raoul Leroy became interested in sightings of human figures comparable to the tiny inhabitants of Lilliput in Jonathan Swift’s famous 1726 novel, Gulliver’s travels. For him, it was a mystery of the mind, which begs for a scientific explanation.

“Such hallucinations exist outside of any micropsy, whereas the patient has a normal conception of the size of the objects which surround him, the micropsy bearing only on the hallucination”, writes Leroy in the introduction of a specific case.

“They sometimes occur on their own, sometimes accompanied by other psycho-sensory disorders.”

The small handful of cases Leroy curated were remarkably diverse, although in general he noted that the visions were vividly dressed, very mobile, and most importantly affable. Sometimes the observations involved individual characters, although most patients reported them appearing in groups, interacting with the material world as if they were really present, climbing on chairs, crawling under doorways and respecting the attraction of gravity.

Not all experiences were so benign. In one study, Leroy reported a 50-year-old woman with chronic alcoholism who claimed to have seen two men “as big as a finger”, dressed in blue and smoking a pipe, sitting high on a telegraph wire. Watching, the patient claimed to have heard a voice threatening to kill her, at which point the vision disappeared and the patient ran away.

“In my previous communication to the Medico-Psychic Society, I said that these hallucinations had a rather pleasant character, the patient looking at them with as much surprise as with pleasure”, remarks Leroy.

“Here, as in the case of Messrs. Bourneville and Bricon [two other cases], the appearance caused a feeling of dread. “

Illustration from the 1900 edition of Gulliver’s Voyages. (Public domain)

What we might dismiss as mere delusions that Leroy interpreted as possible symptoms of mental illness, worthy of classification so that doctors could find better ways to diagnose and even treat the illness.

Influenced by Leroy’s work, some psychologists try to explain the phenomenon. The accounts were for the most part limited to unverifiable hypotheses involving the mysterious functioning of the midbrain, or some kind of Freudian regression.

Despite this early interest, Lilliputian hallucinations do not appear as a criterion for any disease in the International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems. It seems like an almost random brain quirk.

Charles Bonnet syndrome is a notable exception: it is a rare condition where hallucinations occur as a result of vision loss. While these hallucinations don’t always take the form of tiny people (they could be flashes of light, geometric shapes, or even just lines), they can also be of the Lilliputian variety.

A 2021 study of a sample of volunteers with active Charles Bonnet syndrome found that their hallucinatory experiences actually increased in frequency and importance during the COVID-19 pandemic, most likely due to the loneliness of the blockages . In some cases, the size of Lilliputian hallucinations has assumed more human proportions.

What do we know about Lilliputian hallucinations today?

Despite Leroy’s historic work and advances in understanding many conditions of the mind, surprisingly little is known about why some brains concoct visions of tiny people.

Recently Jan Dirk Blom, a medical historian and psychotic disorder researcher at Leiden University, sought to change this by undertaking a rigorous search for case reports of Lilliputian hallucinations in modern medical records.

After a long hunt, Blom managed to find only 26 articles on Lilliputian hallucinations that could be considered relevant. Of these, only 24 provided original case descriptions.

“During the 1980s and 1990s, new cases were only rarely published, and the question of the underlying source of the Lilliputian hallucinations has faded into oblivion,” Blom wrote in his 2021 study, published in Opinion on neuroscience and biobehaviour.

“Despite a renewed interest in the phenomenon over the past two decades, this situation has remained largely unchanged.”

Turning his research towards more historical and less clinical references, including book chapters and medical theses, Blom finally assembled a catalog of 226 unique cases to compare and contrast.

Their experiences and backgrounds were varied, evenly split between male and female, the oldest 90 years old, the youngest just four years old. But there was a lot in common.

Most people have reported hallucinations dressed in striking colorful clothing. These weren’t vague shadows lurking around the corner of the eye – it was a vibrant circus of clowns, harlequins, or even jumping soldiers. Only a small handful of cases reported visions in “moody” or dull shades of gray or brown.

Virtually all of the characters were strangers, with a few having reported familiar faces, including in a few reports of autoscopy cases (seeing oneself in tiny form). In a fifth of the cases, the visions were accompanied by auditory hallucinations, often muffled or having a high pitched tone.

Humans weren’t the only entities observed either. In almost a third of the reports, patients claimed to have seen animals, such as small bears or small horses pulling small carts.

Of particular note is the fact that 97% of the cases were projective, appearing in three dimensions, and engaging real-world physics. The rest were reported as 2D projections on a surface, or moved with the movement of the viewer’s head.

It is also interesting to note that almost half of the cases remained affected negatively, in fear or anxiety. Unlike Leroy’s assessment at the time, only a third of these cases were appeased or entertained by their experience. One case of a depressed patient claimed that the visions were his only remaining joy.

When it comes to clinical diagnostic reports, Blom has identified 10 distinct groups, the most important of which are psychiatric disorders, alcohol or drug intoxication, and central nervous system damage.

It is not difficult to imagine some kind of involvement of the visual system of the brain; MRI studies on patients with Charles Bonnet syndrome confirm this. But something more specific has to happen, and detailed neurological investigations are so far lacking.

Blom suggests that a loss of peripheral sensory input could mean that parts of the brain usually involved in information processing are no longer working, mustering what little stimulus they can find to weave a fantastic scene of crowds and crowds. colors.

The fact that this is a common experience for people with Charles Bonnet syndrome, and visions for people with conditions such as Parkinson’s disease sometimes reporting twilight hallucinations, seems to add weight. to this assumption.

Other models could also explain visions, perhaps a means of “dream intrusion,” where usually suppressed imagery bubbling under a blanket of everyday perceptions appears, blending into reality in eerie ways. Or maybe it’s a mix of neurological phenomena, inspirational theft of memories, or reinterpreting otherwise mundane physical sensations such as the eye floaters we all see shaking in the corner of our vision. .

Considering the importance of tiny human figures in folklore around the world, in the form of mischievous elves and playful imps, or terrifying demons or wise old dwarfs, we seem more fascinated by reports as a stories only as quirks of neurology.

Maybe that will change one day, and our stories of the little people among us will tell us as much about how our brains work as they do about our cultural heritage.

All Explainers are determined by fact checkers to be correct and relevant at the time of posting. Text and images can be edited, deleted or added as an editorial decision to keep information up to date.


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Applications sought for the city’s sports hall https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/applications-sought-for-the-citys-sports-hall/ Sun, 26 Dec 2021 17:38:00 +0000 https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/applications-sought-for-the-citys-sports-hall/ 23 December 2021 The sad stories of failed small businesses and drained towns are all too common because of the pandemic, but the town of Mount Airy’s financial situation has actually improved over the past two years. This is attested by the most recent independent audit of the city’s books which is required each year, […]]]>

The sad stories of failed small businesses and drained towns are all too common because of the pandemic, but the town of Mount Airy’s financial situation has actually improved over the past two years.

This is attested by the most recent independent audit of the city’s books which is required each year, showing that if it were a corporation, the municipality would be firmly in the dark and not in the red.

However, city officials warn that observers shouldn’t read too much into the bottom line, saying it reflects unusual factors and the delay in spending that has been canceled, which will strain future budgets.

The latest audit, for fiscal year 2020-21 which ended on June 30, shows a key barometer of Mount Airy’s finances – the balance of funds available – that is, its savings or surplus – More and more significantly compared to the previous year.

It has increased by more than $ 1.5 million, according to an audit presentation at a Mount Airy Board of Trustees meeting last week.

This is in addition to a similar disclosure from the previous fiscal year, 2019-2020, when the balance of available funds increased by nearly $ 1.7 million. This excess fund is defined as unrestricted money that can be used for any purpose.

At the end of June, it stood at about $ 12.6 million, up from $ 11 million the previous year.

Putting this into perspective, a state regulator, the Commission on Local Government, recommends that a city keep a surplus of 8% of its annual budget, covering what would be needed to keep things running for about a month. without generating income.

In the case of Mount Airy, its surplus would be enough to carry the municipality for 12.5 months, based on its 2020-2021 general fund spending of just over $ 11.7 million.

“The city is doing quite well in this area,” said Kelly Gooderham of the accounting firm Martin Starnes and Associates in Hickory, which has been auditing the city’s financial records since 2011.

It’s not your normal time

City council members appeared pleased with the results given the coronavirus crisis, although Mayor Ron Niland suggested the good performance was somewhat artificial in nature.

“There are factors underlying these numbers – as we know COVID and we are understaffed and will delay spending that we will have to look into” later, Niland explained, while also acknowledging the “good healthy report. ” present.

He was referring to unfilled vacancies, for example in the Mount Airy Police Department, corresponding to savings in wages and benefits, but causing problems with available manpower.

The total costs of the public safety category of the municipal budget, covering both the police and the fire services, have thus decreased by 7%, from $ 5.3 million for the 2019-2020 fiscal year to 4.9 M $ for the year ending June 30.

Overall expenses for 2020-2021 have decreased by more than $ 575,000, or 5%, from the previous year, while revenues have increased by $ 335,000, or 2%.

The revenue picture was boosted by the increase in property tax revenue of $ 149,000, or 2% t, which Gooderham said was due to the increase in property values. Among other audit highlights, ABC’s sales tax revenue and profit income also increased.

In response to a question from Commissioner Tom Koch, it was revealed that no federal American Rescue Plan (ARP) Act funds designated for the city government earlier this year had been included in the period of audit.

Meanwhile, the Mount Airy Sewer Operation – a user-fee-funded business fund that is kept separate from its general fund – also had a good year.

There was an upward change in its net position of $ 2.6 million in 2020-21, according to audit figures, weighing factors such as cash flow from operations and required service from debts.

City finance director Pam Stone said the sewer situation was magnified by the fact that Mount Airy supplied all of Dobson’s water needs for a three-month period during the year.

Commenting on the overall results of the audit, Acting City Manager Darren Lewis pointed out that while the municipality made $ 1.5 million in the last fiscal year despite all the challenges, more are looming. horizon.

He cited $ 642,000 of expenses for unfinished and paid items for the carry-over and freezing of 13 vacant employee positions during part of the budget period.

“Once again, it’s been another great year,” added Lewis. “But that’s not going to happen this year – we’re not going to have $ 1.5 million for good.”

Lewis mentioned that about $ 1.3 million has already been committed from the balance of funds available just in the middle of fiscal year 2021-2022.

It was allocated to Spencer’s redevelopment costs, downtown projects, and a new grapple truck costing $ 185,000. The Surry Arts Council has also been designated to receive $ 400,000 for a new building. Lewis mentioned that necessary vehicles such as fire trucks, dump trucks and leaf trucks are also to be funded in the near future.

“Is it a clean audit and are there any recommendations? Asked Commissioner Joe Zalescik.

“It was an unequivocal audit,” Gooderham replied. “Everything was good.” The audit presenter praised the work of Stone, the city’s chief financial officer, which is thorough and straightforward.

There were no findings of questionable costs, Gooderham said of the Martin Starnes and Associates audit.

“We issued a clear, unmodified opinion, which is the best opinion we can provide.”


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New study suggests people who exercise more also drink more https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/new-study-suggests-people-who-exercise-more-also-drink-more/ Wed, 22 Dec 2021 19:20:29 +0000 https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/new-study-suggests-people-who-exercise-more-also-drink-more/ According to a recent study published in the journal Medicine and science in sport and exercise, men with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are more than twice as likely to drink a “moderate amount” of alcohol (up to 14 drinks per week) than their less fit peers. Researchers at the Cooper Institute in Dallas evaluated […]]]>

According to a recent study published in the journal Medicine and science in sport and exercise, men with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are more than twice as likely to drink a “moderate amount” of alcohol (up to 14 drinks per week) than their less fit peers.

Researchers at the Cooper Institute in Dallas evaluated data from nearly 40,000 Americans, who performed regular aerobic treadmill tests at the Cooper Clinic and answered questions about exercise and drinking habits. ‘alcohol. The research concluded, quite decisively, that the nation’s fittest men and women tend to drink more. And this trend continued at the very top of the scale – “heavy drinkers” (men who had more than 15 drinks per week) also had a higher likelihood of being physically fit.

If these results seem surprising enough to you, you are not alone. The researchers themselves are struggling to understand the correlation and plan to investigate a number of hypotheses. After all, fit people are not more likely to smoke cigarettes, eat fast food, or have a range of other vices that can interfere with their workout. (Like The New York Times Emphasizes, this is a behavioral pattern known as habit grouping. In general, healthy choices lead to healthy choices.)

Yet even though we know that drinking is not a healthy choice, it is certainly a social choice. Consider the “game and a pint” traditions of intramural teams, or the close association between running clubs and local microbreweries. People who are active and on the go may find themselves in situations where alcohol is present more frequently. There are also the elegant justifications that training can provide: since i went to this class i deserve X.

As of yet, there is no scientific connection between a person’s physical form and their ability (or desire) to drink more alcohol. That said, alcohol and exercise ignites a similar “reward center” in the brain, suggesting that people who successfully run four miles may want to maintain the high level when they return home by handing over four beers.


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In Orangutan Parenting, kids can get their own dinner https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/in-orangutan-parenting-kids-can-get-their-own-dinner/ Tue, 21 Dec 2021 05:54:11 +0000 https://michiganparanormalencounters.com/in-orangutan-parenting-kids-can-get-their-own-dinner/ Young orangutans are very similar to toddler humans: lovable, endearing, adorable. But unlike human children, when their mothers say no, they don’t complain or argue. Mother orangutans teach their young to forage, adapting their tactics depending on the age of the child and the complexity of the food-gathering technique. And they know exactly when a […]]]>

Young orangutans are very similar to toddler humans: lovable, endearing, adorable. But unlike human children, when their mothers say no, they don’t complain or argue.

Mother orangutans teach their young to forage, adapting their tactics depending on the age of the child and the complexity of the food-gathering technique. And they know exactly when a child is old enough to know better.

A new study, published this month in Scientific Reports, describes 21 young orangutans living with their mothers in a forest on the west coast of Sumatra’s Aceh province. Researchers recorded 1,390 incidents of minors asking for food from their mothers, usually simply by grabbing it from the mother’s hands. Mothers tolerate this, but only up to a point.

“No one did a lot of work on this, and no one had data like this for Sumatran orangutans,” said David P. Watts, professor of anthropology at Yale who has published extensively. on the behavior of primates but did not participate in this study. “The whole subject of how young primates learn what they need to eat – people haven’t studied that much.”

Orangutans stay with their mothers for eight or nine years, longer than almost all mammals except humans. But time is not wasted: during this period, they learn to recognize, collect and process more than 200 foods.

Foods like leaves and flowers are easy to find and ready to eat. But for most fruits, a large part of their diet, orangutans need to know when they are ripe, what parts are edible, and how to extract them. And some foods involve the use of tools: getting honey from a beehive, for example, requires the selection and design of a suitable stick, as well as long practice to perfect the skill of using it.

An orangutan is 8 years old before having acquired the basic knowledge of how to eat, and up to 12 years before mastering the most complex techniques of foraging and preparing for food.

Researchers have found that the older the child and the easier the food to find and prepare, the less willing mothers are to share. Mothers let young children grab almost any food and allow even older children to grab hard-to-find foods. But if an older youngster tries to grab some flowers – easy to find and eat – she won’t let him, essentially telling the child that he’s old enough to find hers.

The best and rarest foods – the meat of small primates, squirrels and civets that orangutans sometimes hunt – are readily shared with children of all ages.

Mother orangutans are patient, and young orangutans are generally docile and docile. If a mother does not want to share, she will simply turn away or put herself in a position where the child cannot reach for the food. No slaps, no screams, no drama – but the youngster gets the message.

“We know that people and orangutans have role models that adjust their behavior based on a student’s needs,” said Caroline Schuppli, lead author of the study. “In humans, adults do it proactively; with orangs the initiative comes from the child – they have to ask for food.

Dr Schuppli, research group leader at the Max Planck Institute for Animal Behavior in Konstanz, Germany, said human children are surrounded by enthusiastic teachers – not only their parents, but extended family and a whole host. educational system based mainly on active teaching. .

“If you think about what a child needs to learn, it’s way beyond their imagination, beyond what they could actively ask for,” she said. “But with orangutans, it’s a little easier. “

Are some orangutans better teachers than others? Nobody knows.

“We would need to show that some mothers of orangutans have children who learn faster,” said Dr Schuppli. “If a mother shares more, do her children learn faster? We do not know. We don’t have the right kind of data to test if this is the case.

In any animal research, and perhaps particularly with primates, there is a danger of anthropomorphizing – attributing human characteristics or behavior to animals without solid evidence. Dr Schuppli tries to resist the impulse.

“The data we collect is descriptive first, and interpretation comes later,” she said. “We analyze the data, based on our assumptions. But every great ape researcher has times when they relate what they see to the behavior of humans. “


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